As was the case with the page dealing with the tower of Babel and pre-flood language, this page comes with caveats:
The cover of the December 4, 1995 issue of Time Magazine showed an anomalocaris and the heading, "Evolution's Big Bang":
Talking about a "Big Bang" of evolution of course is like talking about the the big sex orgy of chastity; in other words, Time was working on an ultimate oxymoron. What they were talking about of course was the Cambrian Explosion, or the start point for complex life forms on this planet. It is said that if the history of this planet were represented as a 24-hour clock, then in all the time from zero to 2100 hours, the planet saw only sponges and other very simple life forms. And then, in a space of time too short to do anything other than guess about and which is often given as something like ten million years (a quasi-official guess), most or all of the present animal phyla, or basic kinds, appeared from out of the blue.
Not only is there no version of evolution which would account for anything like that... no religion accounts for that either. There is no rational way to picture God operating in such a manner.It doesn't even matter whose time theory you subscribe to, whether you buy the evolutionists' notion of a 4 billion year planetary history or the 6000 year history which Christians used to believe in, or anything in between, the whole thing is bewildering.
One thing which COULD account for something like the Cambrian explosion is what you might call a Splash Saltation. What that would amount to would be another planet which already had complex life forms getting too close to Earh, and water and creatures in it being ripped off the other body, landing in water on this planet, and either taking up residence in that water or walking, crawling, or slithering ashore. Now, obviously in our solar system the way it presently exists, there is nothing like that which anybody could picture ever having happened. But what about the past? Is there any reason to think that something like that might have happened in past ages?
The circumstances in which our sun finds
itself are unusual in our Milky Way galaxy. Most of the planets
which you'd find in the galaxy orbit dwarf stars and most stars appear in pairs
or small groups. Consider some of what Wikipedia has to say about red
dwarf stars for instance, e.g.
"Determining the habitability of red dwarf systems could help reveal the likelihood of extraterrestrial life as red dwarfs make up most stars in the Milky Way Galaxy."
"Planets that are close enough to red dwarfs to receive a sufficient amount of radiation for liquid water are likely to have long been tidally locked to their respective stars so that the planet rotates only once for every time it completes an orbit; this means that one face always points at the star (creating perpetual day) and one face always points away (creating perpetual night)."
In other words, the most common planetary situation in our galaxy is for a planet to orbit a red dwarf star closely and in tidal lock. The author assumes such a situation would be the same as our moon is now, i.e. with the planet rotating so as to maintain phase lock and its axis still closer to being perpendicular to the line between star and planet. Neglected is the possibilityof the planet's axis being pointed straight at the dwarf star. If more than one planet were to be in such close and locked orbits around such a small star, then there is a high likelihood that they would line up like a shish-kabob and begin to orbit the star as a group, and in a sort of a line. That is, gravitational and possibly electromagnetic forces would tend to keep them clumped together. One notes also that a Splash Saltation in a situation like that would not be an overwhelming surprise to anybody.
Another page on this site describes the ancient conformation of our system. In a primordial solar system, the spin axes of the planets should be roughly perpendicular to the plane of the system. The sun, Mercury, and Jupiter all have axial tilts under ten degrees and can be thought of as an original system. Saturn, Mars, Earth, and Neptune have axis tilts from 23.4 - 28.3 degrees; you'd assume they were a small system which was captured by our sun as a group. To make a long story very short, Saturn used to be a red dwarf star and we used to be in orbit around it, along with Mars, Titan, Iapetus, and the rest of Saturn's present moons:
At a later point but still before the older Saturn system was captured by our present sun, Venus became a member of that older system as well. Venus spins backwards so that Wikipedia's table describes its axial tilt as 177.4 degrees, or basically upside down in our system. Bob Bass once noted that something like that cannot plausibly be primordial and must have arisen via contact with another body in the system and that the curious phase lock between Venus and Earth tells us which bodythat was (us). From Wikipedia:
Venus' 583.92-day interval between successive close approaches to the Earth is almost exactly equal to 5 Venusian solar days (precisely, 5.001444 of these), making approximately the same face visible from Earth at each close approach. Whether this relationship arose by chance or is the result of some kind of tidal locking with the Earth is unknown.
Ancient people experienced two separate ages which involved the Saturn System, one the well known "Golden Age" from classical literature, and another "Purple Age" which several very old human groups on the planet appear to remember. Troy Mclachlan has put together very excellent descriptions of those ages which amount to readable versions of at least two of Dwardu Cardona's books, with enough pictures to make the ideas graspable:
The Purple Dawn.
Transition to the Golden Age.
The Golden Age.
Ancient artwork indicates that humans used to see the sort of shish-kabob alignment described above, even for a period after the Saturn system had been pulled into orbit around our present sun and before Earth and Mars got pulled into their present solar orbits. Again given that, and if there was any reason to believe that one or more of those bodies involved in the ancient Saturn system had life forms of their own, then the idea of a Splash Saltation begins to look like a whole lot less of a stretch.
Terminal Velocity ...
There are two problems which many would have with the idea of a bear or a fish just falling into one of our lakes or seas from another planet...
Item one is answered by noting that for a splash saltation to occur at all the atmospheres of the two bodies involved would have to mix and, further, there is reason to believe that the atmosphere of the ancient system was system wide and not peculiar to individual planets . That is basically the ONLY way to picture Mars ever having been habitable in fact since Mars would never have been able to hold a breathable atmosphere via gravity given its size.
Wikipedia conveniently answers the second question. Things don't just keep falling faster and faster as they fall greater distances; there is a point called "terminal velocity" at which the force of gravity and air resistence balance each other. Terminal velocity for a human, for instance, falling in random orientations, is around 122 mph. The formula which Wiki gives for terminal velocity is simple enough and there is also the question of reduced gravity in antediluvian times, i.e. the electrostatic dynamics of the Saturn system had the effect of reducing gravity much the same way that Eugene Podkletnovs experiments have. For a g value half of today's for instance and without bothering with any of the other terms in Wiki's formula, you'd square both sides of the 122 = **** thing, divide by two and then unsquare, and you'd get about 86 mph which your bear or fish would probably survive. The largest known sauropods of course would require a minimum of a 3-1 attenuation of gravity just to stand and walk.
IF our planet had once orbited a brown dwarf star of which Saturn is what now remains and if living creatures had splashed down from one or more bodies in that ancient system into our oceans, then you might expect to find at least one of Saturn's present moons with the sort of salt water we find here. That in fact does turn out to be the case:
"More than 90 jets of all sizes near Enceladus's south pole are spraying water vapor, icy particles, and organic compounds all over the place," says Carolyn Porco, an award-winning planetary scientist and leader of the Imaging Science team for NASA's Cassini spacecraft. "Cassini has flown several times now through this spray and has tasted it. And we have found that aside from water and organic material, there is salt in the icy particles. The salinity is the same as that of Earth's oceans."
Substituting Logic for the Missing Time Machine
The time machine it would take to completely verify any of the ideas which this web page deals with does not exist; what this page is about is most likely scenarios, and probabilities.
Given that, I view the idea of the Cambrian Explosion having amounted to such a Splash Saltation as a near certainty; the only other possibility I see would involve some sort of deliberate seeding of our planet with basic and very ancient life forms at that time, and I see that as highly unlikely. Nothing in this should be construed as saving the theory of evolution of course, since the laws of mathematics and probability work the same way on other planets as they do here.
To have a Splash Saltation of course, something has to be there to splash... Is there any reason to think that any of the bodies in our system other than Earth might have ever been inhabited? The answer to that one is clear enough to those who've been following the stream of images coming back from Mars probes over the last dozen years. The first hint of anything like that came in 1976 with the Viking probe, and the familiar "Face on Mars:
The one item in that picture appeared to resemble a gigantic megalithic structure in the form of a human face meant to be seen from off planet; NASA of course claimed the structure was a natural formation. What most people are still not aware of is that much more detailed images started coming back around 1998 including astonishing pictures of pyramids in the Cydonia region and this image of the face megalith:
That image should have ended any debate on the topic; Mother Nature simply does not do straight lines and Bezier curves on a three-mile scale. Nonetheless the official position of space agencies remains that all such images are natural formations. Since then, other Martian face images, made to be seen from off planet, have been found. Dr. Thomas Van Flandern, a former director of the Naval Observatory, provided a proof of the artificiality of the Cydonia face, and his website, www.metaresearch.org, includes slides from a press conference he held in 2001 dealing with Mars image findings. These include images of other human faces seen on Mars' surface:
These faces are clearly those of modern humans and not hominids, and there are animal images as well, that is, images of structures representing animals which can be seen from off planet.
More recently, images of the remains of vast cities have been turning up in NASA and ESA images, and that stuff they try to hide. That sort of evidence is in no short supply on youtube, on Mars Anomaly Research dotcom, and in fact what has happened is that ESA in particular publishes these images because their mandates require them to but first tries to eliminate the anomalous material by fiddling with the brightness and contrast of the images to make them look like sandy desert areas. Sharp-eyed private researchers and bloggers have found several of these areas and undone the blurring and I've gone through this exercise two or three times myself to convince myself those people aren't crazy. The simplest example is the case of the Hale Crater;
Just a sandy wasteland, right? You download the hires jpeg image:
Feed that into any decent image handling software, such as the Free Software Foundation's Gimp Package, adjust brightness down and contrast up a bit, and presto chango, the thing doesn't look like a sandy desert any more:
That's my own ajustment of brightness and contrast and just one area of the image. Several more professional shots at the same reconstruction can be found on the net.
That's a small area of the image which turns up.
Another such ESA image area which is retrieved from being a desert by fiddling with color hues:
Again I've gone through this exercise of transfrorming the one ESA image of a desert into my own image of a city just by adjusting brightness and contrast myself in the case of the Hale crater area and there are several other such areas.
Recently also, color images of Mars' little moon Phobos have been published, and a simple google search on "phobos hirise" will turn up these 2008 HIRISE project images from the Univ. of Arizona:
Real moons of course are supposed to be made out of dirt and rocks; they are not supposed to be made of metallic strakes like that or reflect light all over the place like that. That thing is artificial, an ancient space station of some sort.
At any rate, it's fairly safe to assume that there were living creatures on more than just this planet in past ages and that the idea of a Splash Saltation does not fail simply due to lack of available splashees. The Cambrian explosion was almost certainly one case of a Splash Saltation but the general rule of the fossil record is that the gradual morphing of one kind of animal into another which Darwin claimed to be the general case is altogether missing; animals appear in the fossil record at certain times, fully formed and along with other creatures which appear fully formed at those same times. That is the nature of the big terrible secret which Steven Gould and other palaeontologists were not allowed to write about prior to the 1980s, and one of the two chief rationales for the Gould/Eldredge/Mayr version of evolution which is called "Punctuated Equilibria", or "Punc-eek". In other words, the history of our planet very likely involves several instances of Splash Saltations.
The last such event may have involved Mars but, in particular, I don't see a way to believe that humans on this planet came from Mars. The humans on Mars in past ages were a space faring civilization and the earliest humans on this planet were much less advanced than that; it seems more likely to me that modern humans on this planet came from elsewhere in our system, but not from Mars. It also seems highly likely that the people living on Mars in past ages saw the storm coming and got out to the near stars, as they would not have had any way of knowing if anything in this system would remain habitable at all. The scale of Phobos and a couple of other things in our system like that indicate a gigantic project such as total evacuation; you don't need anything that size for simple space exploration within our own system.
Now, the next question is, where did that Elder Saturn-based solar system come from, what sort of circumstances existed on it prior to its capture by our present sun, and what sort of stretches of time did all of that involve?
For starters, stellar distances are vastly greater than the distances we observe in our own solar system. If we were to scale our system to be a yard wide or thereabouts, that is, for the diameter of Pluto's orbit to be about one yard... Then the sun would be about width of a human hair's diameter; Earth and Mars wold be an inch or two from the sun; and the nearest other star, Alpha Centauri, would be a bit more than four miles away. In other words, the difference between the distances to the nearest planets and to the nearest star are similar to an inch or two compared to about four miles. Further, the distance between our sun and Alpha Centauri is said to be fairly normal for the Milky Way galaxy.
Given that, for ons star to capture another unrelated star has to be about the rarest thing which would ever happen in the galaxy. But most stars occur in pairs or in groups of three, and rarely in groups larger than three, and some entire galaxies occur in strings of galaxies. More than 99% of the mass of the universe is in the form of plasma; the main thing which agglomerates plasma into solid material including planets, stars, and galaxies is cosmic Birkeland currents arcing through cosmic plasmas and the Z-pinch effect which those Birkeland currents produce. That tends to create stars in small groups and galaxies in strings of galaxies. Wikipedia describes Alpha Centauri, our nearest neighbor, thus:
Alpha Centauri is a triple star composed of a main binary yellow dwarf pair (Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B), and an outlying red dwarf, Proxima Centauri. A and B are a physical binary star, with an eccentric orbit in which A and B can be as close as 11 AU or as far away as 36 AU. Proxima is much further away (~15,000 AU) from A and B than they are to each other. Although this distance is still small compared to other interstellar distances, it is debatable whether Proxima is gravitationally bound to A and B.
Picture Proxima Centauri being pulled into the main binary part of AC over a space of several tens of thousands of years and you probably have a pretty good picture of how the Saturn system got pulled into the realm of our present sun.
There were recurring ice ages during prehistoric times, possibly for more than one set of reasons. Troy Mclachlan's site provides a description of ice ages during and after the so-called purple age and there may have been ice ages prior to that for other reasons.
The Origin of Humans and Hominids
Now, the final question which we are going to deal with here is that of (modern) humans, and how they got here. My general take on this topic has been posted on internet forums occasionally: The Basic Non Evolution of Modern Man. I can feel pretty good in fact about having denied the possibilityof humans evolving from hominids for the past decade but there's one little piece of that picture which I can't feel good or proud of and that is that, prior to 2012, had anybody asked me what Neanderthals LOOKED like, I'd have directed them to one of Jay Maternes' images:
Silly me... Particularly since the Neanderthal DNA studies beginning in the late 1990s, I should have thought about that one a bit harder. Neanderthal DNA turns out to be about halfway between ours and that of a chimpanzee, and that isn't what Matternes' images or any of the other images we are familiar with have ever shown.
For that matter, one of Wikipedia's pages dealing with the topic shows a mockup of a complete Neanderthal skeleton with normal looking feet which are probably just concocted from minimal real evidence, and then an image of a Neanderthal footprint which is presumably real and a caption describing it as from the Natural History Museum in Prague:
THAT is pretty obviously an ape's footprint and I wouldn't like the betting odds of that being evidence of a human-like Neanderthal having once had a pet gorilla.....
The gentleman who has cleared this problem up is a New Zealander by the name of Danny Vendramini, with a home page for this topic at http://www.themandus.org/
Vendramini notes that Neanderthal skulls are very good matches for ape profiles, and very bad matches for ours:
Image courtesy of themandus.org
That of course is so simple that you'd figure somebody had to have figured it out over a hundred years ago when people first started studying Neanderthal remains but, apparently, nobody did. The funny thing is that Vendramini did not tell his artist to produce the world's scariest monster, the basic order was to start with Neanderthal skulls and skeletal bones and try to flesh them out using the assumption that what you had was a bipedal, carniverous ape with an 8" fur coat (like every other ice-age animal) and the big eyes which Neanderthal eye sockets suggest for nocturnal hunting, and possibly a slightly mean look on the thing's face. The fact that what turns up looks as bad as it does to us is probably, as Vendramini suggests, due to past bad experiences with it, sort of like the instinctive human reaction to spiders and snakes.
As we noted above, our notions of day and night do not apply to the middle Pleistocene in Europe; it was probably dark enough that the big Neanderthal eyes were an edge all of the time. Likewise the 8" fur coat explains the fact of no Neanderthal needles ever having been found, a creature with an 8" fur coat clearly has no need of clothing or needles.
Several of Vendramini's reconstructions (as per request, all Neanderthal Images here are courtesy of www.themandus.org), some images without the ice-age fur coat for illustration purposes:
With and without the fur coat:
Size comparison with a modern human:
In fact there's a tendency to read that Neanderthals averaged about 5 feet, six inches in height and wonder how strong something no taller than that could be, but you can see the problem. If the human is 5-6 he'd weigh about 140 lbs and the Neanderthal is at least twice that. In other words, a Neanderthal male could easily be 5-6 and weight 300 lbs or more without any fat on him.
Vendramini's artist paints many of his subjects with fight faces. The individual shown below thus appears to be somewhat more of a business executive Neanderthal, with a more businesslike look and demeanor (a Neanderthal of wealth and taste):
Two other data points worth mentioning...
One is that if you try to draw a more human-like Neanderthal with the eyes and nose as large as the bones indicate they would have to be, what you end up with is outlandish:
Image courtesy of Rob Gargett, The Subversive Archaeologist Blogspot (http://thesubversivearchaeologist.blogspot.com/)
The other is that standard depictions of other kinds of hominids for which the kum-bay-ah-in-science thing is not a factor are fairly similar to Vendramini's reconstructions albeit without the ice-age eyes or fur:
Note the friendly face... Hominids were all bipedal apes apparently; the Neanderthal was the natural born killer amongst hominds, the absolute apex predator of the ice-age world.
Vendramini on youtube:
Vendramini is making four or five separate claims:
As near as I can tell, the only item on that list which is not supported by evidence is the idea of the SQ hominids punk-eeking into Cro Magnons. I have a much easier time believing the SQs became extinct, the Cro Magnons got here from somewhere else, and the neanderthals finally messed with somebody they truly had no business messing with, and paid the price for it.
Vendramini notes that the SQs disappeared from the fossil record, and then the Cro Magnons appeared in the same region; he reasonably enough (to an evolutionist at any rate) assumes that to mean that the SQs had been driven down by Neanderthal predation to a very low number, likely under 50 individuals, and then experienced a "speciation event" [evolutionist term for a miracle] which changed them and their culture into Cro-Magnonism in too short a time period for anybody to measure.
One thing scholars all agree on is that whatever caused Cro Magnon people to appear on this planet when they did was not gradual. Vendramini ("Them and us") notes:
The speed of the Upper Palaeolithic revolution in the Levant was also breathtaking. Anthropologists Ofer Bar-Yosef and Bernard Vandermeersch:
Between 40,000 and 45,000 years ago the material culture of western Eurasia changed more than it had during the previous million years. This efflorescence of technological and artistic creativity signifies the emergence of the first culture that observers today would recognise as distinctly human, marked as it was by unceasing invention and variety. During that brief period of 5,000 or so years, the stone tool kit, unchanged in its essential form for ages, suddenly began to differentiate wildly from century to century and from region to region. Why it happened and why it happened when it did constitute two of the greatest outstanding problems in paleoanthropology.
Likewise Dwardu Cardona ("Flare Star"):
"Where and how the Cro Magnons first arose remains unknown. Their appearance, however, coincided with the most bitter phase of the ice age. There is, however, no doubt that they were more advanced, more sophisticated, than the Neanderthals with whom they shared the land. Living in larger and more organized groups than had earlier humans, Cro Magnon peoples spread out until they populated most of the world. Their tools, made of bone, stone, and even wood, were carved into harpoons, awls, and fish hooks. They were presumably able hunters although, as with the Neanderthals, they would also have foraged to gather edible plants, roots, and wild vegetables. The only problem here is that, as far as can be told, the Cro Magnons seem to have arrived on the scene without leaving a single trace of their evolutionary ancestors. 'When the first Cro Magnons arrived in Europe some 40,000 years ago', Ian Tattersall observed, 'they evidently brought with them more or less the entire panoply of behaviors that distinguishes modern humans from every other species that has ever existed.'"
The list of things which are wrong with the notion of Skhul-Qafzeh hominids morphing into Cro Magnons via punc-eek is too long to make the usual neat little html list out of. For starters, and in huge contrast to what Vendramini had assumed to be the case, from our little study of Mars above, we already know that modern humans existed in our solar system prior to the SQ hominids dying out and Cro Magnon humans appearing on Earth; the idea of a band of primitive humans thus arriving here either via a Splash Saltation or some other kind of saltation event is much simpler than punc eek and the basic science principle known as Occam's Razor demands that it be accepted as more likely. In other words, Cro Magnons left no trace of antecedants on this planet, evolutionary or otherwise, because they didn't have any antecedants on this planet. I would guess they came from some part of the system other than Mars, since the people living on Mars in past ages were not stone agers.
There is another complex problem in that Elaine Morgan's thesis of modern man originally having lived in water does a better job of accounting for modern human anatomy and a number of modern human traits than does Vendramini's claim of Skhul/Qafzeh hominids being required to "neanderthal-proof" their sexual behavior, lose their fur for identification purposes etc. Here we have two examples of evolutionism not sufficing to totally ruin good logical and scientific thinking. You don't need to believe in evolution to comprehend that Morgan is almost certainly correct in thinking that modern humans originally lived in water, we share a hundred or more traits with the aquatic mammals and many of those traits are totally unlike anything found on land animals. The ONLY real problem with Morgan's thesis is that there has never been a body of water on this planet which would be safe for humans to live or develop in but, again as we've seen above, whatever that development involved did not take place on this planet.
There is one glaring item in particular which Morgan's thesis easily explains and for which Vendramini's theory falls flat, and that is the near total lack of a decent sense of smell amongst modern humans. An aquatic mammal clearly has no use for a sense of smell. On the other hand, for a land prey species (all hominids were at least originally prey species) to LOSE its sense of smell would be gigantically maladaptive and would almost certainly doom the species. Vendramini is proposing an extreme evolutionary process being driven by predation which results in the prey species losing its sense of smell, which plainly doesn't work.
There is the question of people being preyed on by a physically stronger adversary wanting to direct their own evolution towards gracility; in real life, they'd have tried to become heavier and stronger. Vendramini's thesis requires them to become gracile and more adept at throwing things (having the kind of shoulders needed to hurl things) and then inventing javelins; in real life, that's needing to get lucky at least one too many times without having time for it.
There is another problem in that the first evidence of modern humans on this planet includes fine artwork including astonishingly good representations of ice age animals on cave walls in multiple colors, and nothing of that sort is associated with any apes or hominids on this planet including the SQ hominids of the Levant. Vendramini claims that the Levantine hominids had spent their final 50,000 years prior to punk-eeking into Cro Magnons being preyed upon and attempting, consciously or otherwise, to channel their own evolution into a form capable of defeating the Neanderthals. If doing that required mastering fine arts including upper paleolithic versions of the Sistine chapel (highly doubtful), then some evidence of it from the 50,000 year run up to this would remain.
Then there is the usual list of problems with punctuated equilibria in general. The original Darwinian vision of gradualistic evolution is flatly refuted by the fossil record (Darwinian evolution demanded that the vast bulk of ALL fossils be intermediates) and by the findings of population genetics, particularly the Haldane dilemma and the impossible time requirements for spreading genetic changes through any sizeable herd of animals.
Consider what Gould and other punk-eekers are saying. Punc-eek amounts to a claim that all meaningful evolutionary change takes place in peripheral areas, amongst tiny groups of animals which develop some genetic advantage, and then move out and overwhelm, outcompete, and replace the larger herds. They are claiming that this eliminates the need to spread genetic change through any sizeable herd of animals and, at the same time, is why we never find intermediate fossils (since there are never enough of these CHANGELINGS to leave fossil evidence).
Obvious problems with punctuated equilibria include, minimally:
1. It is a pure pseudoscience seeking to explain and actually be proved by a lack of evidence rather than by evidence; In other words, the people pushing this particular variant of evolution are claiming that the fact of all the intermediate fossils being missing, far from disproving the doctrine, actually supports it. Similarly, Cotton Mather claimed that the fact that nobody had ever seen or heard a witch was proof they were there (if you could SEE them, they wouldn't BE witches...) This kind of logic is less inhibiting than the logic they used to teach in American schools. For instance, I could as easily claim that the fact that I'd never been seen with Tina Turner was all the proof anybody should need that I was sleeping with her. In other words, it might not work terribly well for science, but it's great for fantasies...
2. PE amounts to a claim that inbreeding is the most major source of genetic advancement in the world. Apparently Steve Gould never saw Deliverance...
3. PE requires these tiny peripheral groups to conquer vastly larger groups of animals millions if not billions of times, which is like requiring Custer to win at the little Big Horn every day, for millions of years.
4. PE requires an eternal victory of animals specifically adapted to localized and parochial conditions over animals which are globally adapted, which never happens in real life.
5. For any number of reasons, you need a minimal population of any animal to be viable. This is before the tiny group even gets started in overwhelming the vast herds. A number of American species such as the heath hen became non-viable when their numbers were reduced to a few thousand; at that point, any stroke of bad luck at all, a hard winter, a skewed sex ratio in one generation, a disease of some sort, and it's all over. The heath hen was fine as long as it was spread out over the East coast of the U.S. The point at which it got penned into one of these "peripheral" areas which Gould and Eldredge see as the salvation for evolutionism, it was all over.
The sort of things noted in items 3 and 5 are generally referred to as the "gambler's problem", in this case, the problem facing the tiny group of "peripheral" animals being similar to that facing a gambler trying to beat the house in blackjack or roulette; the house could lose many hands of cards or rolls of the dice without flinching, and the globally-adapted species spread out over a continent could withstand just about anything short of a continental-scale catastrophe without going extinct, while two or three bad rolls of the dice will bankrupt the gambler, and any combination of two or three strokes of bad luck will wipe out the "peripheral" species. Gould's basic method of handling this problem was to ignore it.
Aside from the Haldane dilemma itself there are the related questions of substitution cost and the genetic death in terms of which that cost has to be paid to substitute any new genetic trait into a group of creatures even as small as 50 individuals. This problem is made much worse if the population on which some very rapid evolutionary process is acting is simultaneously being preyed on by another species which has no percieved need to evolve, and which owns the night. Or in plain English if the SQs were killing off every one of themselves with too much body hair or a nose which was slightly too short while at the same time Neanderthals were killing them for food, there is no way to believe that they'd even survive, much less morph into a totally different kind of creature.
Cro Magnons and the Neolithic World War
Cro Magnons were modern people with a much more advanced stone-based technology than any hominid had, better knives and spear points, as well as javelins and archery and the kinds of shoulder joints needed to hurl javelins, which apes and hominids never had. Note that to kill Neanderthals you didn't need 2700 fps weaponry or minute of angle accuracy from 600 meters, you only needed something good enough to keep them from getting within ten feet of you. To survive in an area like the Levant which was infested with Neanderthals, you needed fire, dogs, and the kinds of weaponry which the Cro Magnons had. Things you didn't want to do included hand to hand combat with Neanderthals, and being caught alone at night by them... if they were feeling well disposed and benevolent they might have killed you before eating you, but it wouldn't have been guaranteed.
Fire would have been particularly useful against an adversary with a 6" fur coat on and real life neanderthals would have had to be terribly careful about approaching humans around a fire. Lighting up the neanderthal might have gotten to be a sort of a game at times...
How did Cro Magnons get here? For numerous reasons I would rule out the explanation which Vendramini provides and, again, this is the one item on the list of claims which he makes which I would totally rule out. Again we've seen that modern humans existed in our system at a sufficiently early date and it's just a quesiton of how a few of them got here. Possibilities include:
At any rate, Cro Magnons got to the Levant and I would assume that shortly after that happened, a small group of Neanderthals saw a few of them out collecting berries or mushrooms in the woods, and figured
"Yum! Some new kind of meat on the hoof!!"
Word got back to the rest of the Cro Magnons that several of their number had been killed, cooked and eaten, or possibly cooked and eaten without benefit of being killed first, or possibly even eaten without benefit of being killed OR cooked first....
The Neanderthals along with every other hominid were subsequently extirpated root and branch from this planet and there are two questions which we should find interesting here: one is the question of the time frames involved, and the other is the question of whether the movement of Cro Magnons into Neanderthal territories amounted to waves of migration as is commonly supposed, or amounted to a full scale, organized military invasion.
You have to start by understanding that every scientific technique for dating ancient things is based on numerous assumptions, at least one of which is flawed and that one is the common belief amongst scientists that there has never been any sort of a cosmic disaster within the time of man living on this planet.. For instance, radiocarbon dating depends on the idea that the ratios of carbon isotopes in the air have always been as they are now with the 60,000 year time limit for the technique. In real life, no living person has any clue as to what that ratio might have been prior to the flood at the time of Noah. In fact all ancient cultures have some version of the global flood story; an evolutionist should comprehend how some might entertain doubts as to the legitimacy of a technique which flatly denies a worldwide tradition like that. The Thunderbolts forum has at least one ongoing thread dealing with dating schemes and how believable any of them are.
I've mentioned my own article on the non evolution of modern man. and that contains a bit of the analysis of Dr. Gunnar Heinsohn of the University of Bremen from his "Wie Alt ist das Menschengeschlect". Heinsohn is a frequent speaker at NATO gatherings since his population youth bulge theories preedict political unrest and conflict at near 100% levels and is a major player in the ongoing efforts to reconstruct the historical chronologies of trhe ancient Mediterranean basin. In his "Wie Alt Ist das Menschengeschlect" he makes a compelling case that stratigraphical evidence has been badly misinterpreted, and that there is no believable evidence for thinking Neanderthals to have lived (in those caves) for more than a few generations). Likewise having the Neanderthals killed off in an organized military invasion requires a drastically shorter space of time than having them killed off by waves of migration.
After the Cro Magnons rid the Levant of Neanderthals, they would have held some sort of a council to determine next steps. I wasn't at that council, but I would assume that nobody there was terribly interested in the idea of simply migrating into the main Neanderthal territory of Ice-Age Europe in small groups with their families and worrying about the Neanderthals filling in behind them and cutting them off as they did so. I assume also that the idea of walking into Neanderthal territory with two or three javelins or a quiver with five or ten arrows in it would not have appealed to anybody. Anything worth doing is worth doing right.
European Neanderthals generally died out as they came into contact with the Cro Magnons and you have to assume that the Cro Magnons invaded Europe on a front wide enough that there was no shot at Neanderthals flanking them and cutting them off from their supply routes.They would have needed a number of things:
There is another factor involved in what happened. The Neanderthal was a cannibalistic creature which yet buried his own dead. That means that a typical Neanderthal viewed the living world as neatly divided into two parts i.e. his own family group or clan, and meat. That probably means that the Cro Magnons who invaded Europe never had to face more than a typical clan or family group's worth of Neanderthals at any one time. They would likely have needed war parties of a hundred or so, that is, large enough to outnumber any Neanderthal group they encountered two or three to one, but not thousands or tens of thousands.
The waves of Cro Magnon expansion into Africa and Asia would not have needed to be as organized and probably weren't.
What Does The Bible Say About Any of This?
i.e. What is the Relationship Between Cro Magnons and Bible Antediluvians?
As near as I can tell from reading, including the Book of Adam and Eve and Midrashim in the form of Louis Ginzberg's "Legends of the Jews", Adam and Eve were real people and there has to be some meaning to the claim of them being the first people, but Genesis itself refers to people using metals and complex instruments while Adam and Eve were alive:
GEN 4:21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.
GEN 4:22 And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.
There is nothing in the Bible about a stone age world war, or about humans exterminating a race of shaggy carniverous monsters from the planet; all of that has to be prior to Adam and Eve, albeit in all probability not tens or hundreds of thousands of years prior.
There is a list of things which the Bible and Jewish literature would have to know about if you wanted to believe that Adam and Eve were descended From Cro Magnons and which the Bible and Midrashim appear to know nothing about:
All of these are the kinds of things which make deep and overwhelming impressions on people and which nobody ever totally forgets about, no matter how many ages pass by afterwards. The fact that the Bible and Midrashim do not know anything about any of them has to indicate that neither the Bible antediluvians nor any of their ancestors if they had any, ever experienced them. This then is the conclusion I come to:
The Two Main Saltations of Modern Humans on this Planet
There must have been at least two saltations, that is, splash saltations or other distinct events which resulted in modern humans coming to this planet. The first such saltation put Cro Magnons here and resulted in the extirpation of all hominids from the planet. The last such event resulted in Adam and Eve and most likely other Bible antediluvians arriving here. I would assume that Basques, many if not most or all Amerinds, Australian aborigines, the Japanese Ainu, and possibly a few other such groups are for the most part directly descended from Cro Magnons, and that the rest of us are descended from Bible antediluvians. Again the genetic stock is all but identical, but the original cultures and technologies were totally different. This hypothesis would also explain where Cain got his wife (a local Cro Magnon...) and clear up at least a few similar Bible mysteries.
Note that this means that the basic human groups are not defined by skin color or what we now call race. Either of the two main basic groups is seemingly capable of producing any skin color or feature found in modern man.
What is the relationship between Cro Magnons and hominids such as the Neanderthal?
The questions of hominids and of giant humans in past ages are dealt with in separate pages linked from the Bearfabrique History section.
Monkeys, apes, and hominids including the Neanderthal are closer to being native to this planet; at least they splashed here or otherwise got here substantially sooner than modern humans did. Nor is there any possible way to believe that any modern person has any Neanderthal blood in them. Joseph Stalin's scientists tried to create a race of super workers by crossing humans and apes in the 1930s; it didn't work, nor did any of the subjects even survive; from the discussion above, we know that Neanderthals were basically glorified apes.
Basic bottom line: there is no relationship between modern man and Neanderthals other than similar mechanical design, and there is no Neanderthal blood in any modern humans whatsoever. The claims of Neanderthal genes in some humans indicating crossbreeding as well as the claims of a "common ancestor" between humans and Neanderthals turn out to involve major violations of logic as the page dealing with hominids describes. Any genes we might have in common with Neanderthals amount to the same sort of thing as low-level C language math functions being used in both banking software and rocket telemetry programs, i.e. they represent similar or the same low-level components being used by an original designer for dissimilar projects. We are not related to the Neanderthal or any other hominid at all. Hominids were the most advanced members of the same family of creatures as monkeys and apes; we are simply not members of that family.
The Spanish Basque are Europe's oldest ethnic group and almost certainly descendants of Cro Magnons, and it is known that the Neanderthal made his last European stand in southern Spain. You'd think if anybody retained any sort of a folk memory of Neanderthals, the Basque would be the ones to do it. Internet searches on the term "basajaun" in fact turn up descriptions and images which are all but dead on the money for one of Vendramini's Neanderthals:
Danny Vendramini claims that we have such a memory written down in our genetic code in the form of instincts and racial memories embedded in non-coding (junk) DNA and he calls this TEEM theory, and that amounts to the claim that while Lamarck's vision of evolution may not work for physical features, it does work for instincts and instinctive behavior such as newly hatched turkey chicks running from hawks but not from other birds the same size as hawks, or the instinctive human fear of spiders and snakes. Critiquing something like that is above my own pay grade other than for noting that in at least one case, that is, Vendramini's claim of Amerind ancestors wiping out the North American megafauna because their shagginess triggered instinctive reactions leftover from the hominid wars is not only unworkable but there is a better explanation. Spiders and snakes however... I don't really kow of a better explanation for it.
The Antediluvian Peace
Part of the disconnect beween the history of Cro Magnons on this planet and the Bible and other classical literature is the question of a warlike age (mesolithic), following the overthrow of hominids, and then the overwhelmingly peaceful period between Adam and the flood; the word "war" does not occur in Genesis until after the flood. Even the words for knives and spears are missing in Genesis prior to the flood.
Plato ("The Statesman") describes that general peace of the antediluvian/golden age:
Y. Soc. Certainly that is quite consistent with what has preceded;
but tell me, was the life which you said existed in the reign of
Cronos in that cycle of the world, or in this? For the change in the
course of the stars and the sun must have occurred in both.
Str. I see that you enter into my meaning;-no, that blessed and
spontaneous life does not belong to the present cycle of the world,
but to the previous one, in which God superintended the whole
revolution of the universe; and the several parts the universe were
distributed under the rule. certain inferior deities, as is the way in
some places still There were demigods, who were the shepherds of the
various species and herds of animals, and each one was in all respects
sufficient for those of whom he was the shepherd; neither was there
any violence, or devouring of one another or war or quarrel among
them; and I might tell of ten thousand other blessings, which belonged
to that dispensation. The reason why the life of man was, as tradition
says, spontaneous, is as follows: In those days God himself was
their shepherd, and ruled over them, just as man, over them, who is by
comparison a divine being, still rules over the lower animals. Under
him there were no forms of government or separate possession of
women and children; for all men rose again from the earth, having no
memory, of the past. And although they had nothing of this sort, the
earth gave them fruits in abundance, which grew on trees and shrubs
unbidden, and were not planted by the hand of man. And they dwelt
naked, and mostly in the open air, for the temperature of their
seasons, was mild; and they had no beds, but lay on Soft couches of
grass, which grew plentifully out of: the earth. Such was the life
of man in the days of Cronos, Socrates; the character of our present
life which is said to be under Zeus, you know from your own
experience. Can you, and will you, determine which of them you deem
Y. Soc. Impossible.
Str. Then shall I determine for you as well as I can?
Y. Soc. By all means.
Str. Suppose that the nurslings of Cronos, having this boundless
leisure, and the power of holding intercourse, not only with men,
but with the brute creation, had used all these advantages with a view
to philosophy, conversing with the brutes as well as with one another,
and learning of every nature which was gifted with any special
power, and was able to contribute some special experience to the store
of wisdom there would be no difficulty in deciding that they would
be a thousand times happier than the men of our own day. Or, again, if
they had merely eaten and drunk until they were full, and told stories
to one another and to the animals-such stories as are now attributed
to them-in this case also, as I should imagine, the answer would be
easy. But until some satisfactory witness can be found of the love
of that age for knowledge and: discussion, we had better let the
matter drop, and give the reason why we have unearthed this tale,
and then we shall be able to get on.
The Bible indicates also that predation did not exist between Adam and Noah:
GEN 1:29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which
is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit
of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.
GEN 1:30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to
every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given
every green herb for meat: and it was so.
But rather began after the flood:
GEN 9:3 Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the
green herb have I given you all things.
GEN 9:4 But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye
not eat. ("Have the decency to kill things before eating them...")
The word "meat" in such passages simply means "food". What did the big cats eat during this golden age? My guess would be fish but that'sjust a guess...
There is one other item which you'd want to consider when talking about the classical antediluvian period and that is the tale of Baldr in Nordic mythology. Frigg is said to have extracted a pledge of safety for Baldr from every living thing save only for the mistletoe and the story may hark back to a period when humankind itself was held inviolate by all other creatures. Nonetheless I would assume that the classical golden age was the abberation in the general picture of how our world usually works.
Prehistory Reading Material:
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